09 Building a Healthy City


1. Health promotion
The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
  • Action Means
    • Build healthy public policy
    • Create supportive environments
    • Strengthen community action
    • Develop personal skills
    • Re-orientate health services
Health promotion models
  • Health Belief Model
    • individual perceptions – preceived severity; preceived susceptibiity
    • modifying factors – cues to action; demographic, socio-psychological and structural factors
    • likelihood of action – preceived benefits; preceived barriers
  • Stages of Change Model
    • pre-contemplation
    • contemplation
    • preparation/determination
    • action
    • maintenance (termination)
Health promotion in Hong Kong
  • Health and safety promotion, such as anti-smoking campaigns, personal hygiene campaigns



Coming Soon
2. Health and safety
  • risk and safety
  • risk assessment
  • health management
Health and safety in different settings
  • Health and safety at work
    • occupational health
  • Health and safety at school
    • protection against harassment, e.g. sexual harassment / bullying
    • others: e.g. hygiene, healthy lunch, peer relationship
  • Health and safety in sports and leisure
    • health and safety practices in sports
    • lifestyle changes and new leisure activities create new risks
  • Health and safety abroad
    • health risk assessment, vaccinations and medication that travellers may need while travelling abroad
  • Health and safety at home
    • e.g. safety aids, use of equipment
  • ‘Healthy city’
    • Guiding principles – community participation, health promotion, primary health care, equity in health, inter-sectoral collaboration, effective use of resources
Emergency Management
  • Accidents in schools, on the road, at home
  • Ways of reporting or obtaining assistance when faced with unsafe situations or accidents
  • Corrective action e.g. first-aid skills
3. Risks and Hazards
  • Mechanical
    • Contact with moving parts of machinery or equipment
  • Physical
    • Obstacles on the ground (wet or damaged flooring), poor visibility
  • Chemical
    • Hazardous chemical substances
  • Electrical
    • Contact with live parts at even normal mains voltage
Physical illness
  • Biological
    • environmental conditions allow the rapid growths of micro-organisms
  • Lifestyle
    • Risk behaviours such as smoking, alcohol addiction, drug abuse, unprotected sex, unhygienic practices
Mental illness
  • Stress
    • Related to life events

Latest Update: October 2019





Tasks & Worksheets

Coming Soon

Assessing my learning

  • What is health promotion?
  • What the similarities and differences between health education and health promotion?
  • How can we maintain health and safety at different settings?