06 Healthy Community


1. Communicable Diseases
  • Bacteria, Virus, Parasites, Fungi
  • Transmissibility, Pathogenicity, Virulence
  • Direct vs indirect contacts
  • Through: droplets, inhalation, ingestion, blood / body fluid
Lifestyle changes
  • Increased international trades and travel due to globalization
2. Immune System
Non-Specific defence
First line – physical barriers such as intact skin and hair in nasal passage; chemical barriers such as tears and saliva
Second line – inflammatory response (affected area red, swollen, and warm)

Specific defence

Third line – immune response
3. Non- Communicable Diseases
  • Diseases – Cancer, cardio-vascular diseases, heart diseases, diabetes mellitus
  • Related health problems – strokes, obesity and hypertension
  • Sedentary lifestyles, unhealthy dietary practice, smoking, alcohol consumption
4. Disease Prevention
  • Primary
    • Aim : avoiding the development of a disease or injury
    • Examples : health education and vaccinations
  • Secondary
    • Aim : early detection of diseases, thereby increasing opportunities for intervention to prevent the progression of the disease
    • Examples : health check-ups (such as pre-marital check-up, antenatal check-up) and disease screening (such as colorectal cancer screening)
  • Tertiary
    • Aim : proper rehabilitation of patients with an established disease to minimize residual disabilities and complications
    • Examples : rehabilitation service
Government strategies
  • Policy making
    • Example: tobacco control policy, food labelling and safety
  • Diseases prevention and surveillance
    • Centre for Health Protection – keeps the community abreast of health risks through the issue of alerts and tracks changes in the risk profile and health determinants of the population
  • Control of the disease spreading
    • Real time surveillance
    • Rapid intervention
    • Responsive risk communication
  • Public health promotion
    • Territory-wide health promotion programmes such as “healthy eating”, “active living”
  • Resources management
    • Mobilising resources and providing support for non-governmental organisations in health promotion and disease prevention

Latest Update: October 2019


Assessing my learning

  • What are the relationships between lifesyles and communicable and non-communicable diseases?
  • What is disease prevention?
  • How could disasese prevention be implemented at individual, society and global levels?