02 Concepts of Health and Well-being


1. Holistic concept of health (Definitions from World Health Organization)
  • State of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
  • In further elaboration in 1984, health is:
    • the extent to which an individual or a group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment
    • a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living
    • a positive concept, emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities
2. Different aspects of health
  • Physical health : related to the physical functioning of the human body
  • Intellectual health : the ability to memorize, reason, analyze and make rational decisions
  • Emotional health : the ability (1) to recognize and express emotions properly and (2) to cope with stress, worries and depression in daily life
  • Social health : the ability to establish and maintain good relationships with others
3. Factors affecting health
  • Demographic factors – age, gender, race and ethnicity etc.
  • Social factors – social class, education, lifestyle, living environment, accessibility to service etc.
  • Economic factors – employment rate, income and economy etc.
  • Nutritional factors – balanced diet, eating habits, nutrient intake etc.
  • Socio-biological factors – effects of parents’ over- and under estimation of children on the personal development etc.
  • Psychobiological factors – hyperactivity and lack of concentration etc.
  • Ecological factors – human activities, natural disasters etc.
  • Globalization – spread of infectious diseases, western-style fast food etc.
  • Technological advancement – screening and vaccination etc.
4. Different perspectives of health and well-being
  • Biological perspective – physical growth and development, biological defects
  • Social perspective – interpersonal relationships, social support, influence of economic changes
  • Psychological perspective – personality development, self-esteem and self-concept, emotional and mental health
  • Spiritual perspective – personal / religious beliefs
  • Ecological perspective – natural resources, pollution, global warming
  • Cultural perspective – different attitudes on health and care, food culture and eating habits

Latest Update: October 2019





Tasks & Worksheets

Assessing my learning

  • What is health?
  • What are the factors that enhance health?
  • What are the risk factors that influence health?
  • How does social care promote health?