01 Personal Needs and Development across Lifespan


1. Physical, intellectual, emotional and social developments


  • Growth : changes in appearance, body shape and weight
  • Development in one’s physical skills: gross motor skills (e.g. running) and fine motor skills (e.g.writing)
  • Development of the ability to memorize, reason, analyze and make rational decisions including language development and cognitive development
  • Development of the ability to recognize and express emotions properly, including joy, anger, grief, fear and frustration
  • Development of the ability to cope with stress, worries and depression in daily life


  • Development of the ability to establish and maintain good relationships with others
2. Theories of Development
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
  • Sensorimotor
  • Preoperational
  • Concrete operational
  • Formal operational
Freud’s theory of psychosexual development
  • Oral Stage
  • Anal Stage
  • Phallic Stage
  • Latency Stage
  • Genital Stage
Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development
  • Trust versus mistrust
  • Autonomy versus shame and doubt
  • Initiative versus guilt
  • Industry versus inferiority
  • Identity versus role confusion
  • Intimacy versus isolation
  • Generativity versus stagnation
  • Integrity versus despair
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
  • Pre-conventional Level
    • Stage 1 punishment-obedience orientation
    • Stage 2 instrumental-relativist orientation
  • Conventional Level
    • Stage 3 interpersonal-concordance orientation
    • Stage 4 authority and social order-maintaining orientation
  • Post-Conventional Level
    • Stage 5 social-contract legalistic orientation
    • Stage 6 universal ethical principle orientation

3. Attachment

  • Secure attachment
  • Ambivalent attachment
  • Avoidant attachment

4. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs: physiological needs, safety needs, love and belongingness needs, esteem needs, need for self-actualisation

5. Self-concept

  • Self-image – how one perceives and understands oneself
  • Ideal self – a person that one would like to be
  • Self-esteem – how one feels and judges oneself

6. Socialisation

  • The lifelong process of acquiring values, skills and behaviours expected of individuals as a member of a particular society

7. Socialising agents

  • Primary Socialisation – family, with parents, siblings and relatives
  • Secondary Socialisation – friends or peers outside home
  • Tertiary Socialisation – other formal groups in the society

8. Family

  • A social group linked by consanguinity or marriage

9. Parenting Style

  • Neglecting
  • Permissive
  • Authoritarian
  • Authoritative

10. Life events

  • Anticipated
  • Unanticipated
11. Five stages of grief (Kübler-Ross)
  • Denial
  • Anger
  • Bargaining
  • Depression
  • Acceptance

12. Coping and resilience

  • Coping strategies: dealing with (1) emotion and (2) problem
  • Positive thinking (Barrie Hopson)
  • Rational and irrational beliefs (Ellis)
  • ABC Model of Ellis – ‘A’ =Activating Events; ‘B’= Beliefs.; ‘C’= Consequent Emotions

Latest Update: October 2019


Assessing my learning

  • What are the important features of personal growth and development at various stages of life?
  • What are the factors affecting personal growth and development?
  • How do human relationships influence personal growth and development?
  • How do life events influence personal growth and development?